networking term has several definitions. The one most
relevant to wireless networking is that Broadband, as
opposed to narrowband, simply means more bandwidth.
Broadband is faster then a dialup connection, or about
64Kbps to 45Mbps. Broadband is needed for wireless
networking because of the fact that a broadband
connection is "always on", and therefore can be shared.
Quick, effortless installation
cat5 cables to run
networks have become more popular and have came down in
price. Since they don't require cables, you can use the
devices anywhere in an office or home, even out on the
deck or poolside. Running Ethernet cable in the house is
no longer needed which saves time and prevents damage to
walls and floors-you can network anywhere—wirelessly.
When on the road, wireless networking is available all
over in hotspots at coffee shops, businesses,
airports—great when you're away from home and need to
get some work done. For convenience, and for the future,
wireless networking is the answer.
A hotspot is
an area with a high-speed Internet connection and
wireless connectivity. A Hotspot is
for broadband wireless internet access, and can be
either public or private. After you find an area with
wireless access, you need either a handheld device with
wireless capabilities, or a computer with a functional
wireless adapter. Configuration depends on the
businesses, colleges, hotels, restaurants, coffee shops,
airports, marinas, libraries and wireless service
providers publicize their public hotspots. There are
also many websites available to visit that will guide
you, no matter what state you may live in, for help
finding these hotspots.
Internet Service Provider. A WISP is a company or
individual that decides to offer wireless internet
access to the public for a weekly, monthly or yearly
rate. Usually a WISP will be setup where high speed
internet access is not available. Wireless 802.11a/b/g
requires line of site, so location is a must when
planning to become a wireless provider.
your location, the equipment needed to setup as a WISP
may vary. Distance, line-of-site, elevation, and other
obstructions effect the setup of your base station. For
more details of setting up a WISP, please go to our WISP
setup page, or email us a diagram of your layout and
desired coverage area, to
bridge kit is a point-to-point connection of two
computers or networks, between two locations, connected
together wirelessly. For Example, A bridge kit enables
businesses or homes that own two locations to be able to
share files and/or internet access, easily and more
range of the internal wireless card will vary among
manufacturers, you can expect to get anywhere from 25
feet to 100 feet away from an access point, or hotspot,
before loosing your connection. Although manufacturers
will inflate the distance they perceive their products
communicating at, these estimates are not practical, and
are usually always wrong. At GNS Communications, you
can expect to receive a real life estimate of what our
recommended products will communicate at. A common fix
to the internal wireless card is to upgrade to a PCMCIA
card, like the ZyXel B-101 card.
For the best
coverage around the house or office, or while logging
into hotspots on the road, you want to go with a card
that allows for the addition of a high gain antenna.
There are a few different cards out there that allow
this, but we recommend using the ZyXel 802.11b card.
This card allows a high gain antenna to be connected to
it and also has excellent range with or without an
for more info.
If you are
using 802.11b, or 802.11g equipment, you are able to
mix different manufacturers products and still get a
connection. Although the majority of wireless equipment
are inter operable, we recommend verification as teh
standards are fairly recent. Some applications do
require the use of similar devices in order to be
supported. Most of these devices are
Power-Over-Ethernet adapters, and bridging kits. Most
PCMCIA cards, PCI cards, and other client devices will
talk to whatever type access point is available.
wireless devices depends on many things. For a typical
laptop with no external antenna connected to it, you can
expect to see ranges varying from 50 to 150 feet.
Although manufacturers state 100 to 300 feet, this is
assuming ideal conditions and is not practical
for everyday usage. With a high gain antenna connected
to the product, the range can be greatly extended and is
limited to LOS (Line-of-Site), the curvature of the
earth, and the gain of the antenna. The higher the
gain, the stronger the antenna.
indoor ranges are around 100 feet, but can be shorter if
the building construction interferes with radio
transmissions. Longer range is possible, but the
performance will decrease without the use of high gain
To extend the
range of wireless equipment, add another access point,
increase the antenna gain, or add a repeater
to your wireless network.
access points can be connected to a wired or wireless
LAN. Most of the time, another access point will be
added to include wireless connectivity in another part
of the home or office. For homes with multiple floors,
it is recommended that a repeater be placed on each
floor to allow for better access throughout the home.
are too large for coverage using one access point should
try using repeaters or high gain antennas. This will
increase the coverage area to allow for better roaming
and wireless connection.
wireless networks are generally easy to install and
setup, you want to be sure to take the necessary steps
to secure your new wireless network. Unlike a
traditional network where an intruder has to be
physically connected to your network to gain access to
data, a wireless network is much different. With a
wireless network, information is being transmitted
through the airwaves, so anyone within range can
potentially gain access to data, unless the
necessary steps are taken to prevent it. Here are some
basic tips on securing your wireless LAN. For more
detail on wireless security, click
1. Disable the SSID broadcast option. This will
force users to know your SSID before connecting.
Use directional antennas
if you plan to connect point to point wireless, or point
to multi-point wireless.
2. Change the default SSID (network name). The
SSID is the name of your wireless network.
Although it is not required, the SSID should always be
changed to something unique that you can
3. Enable MAC address filtering. The MAC address
is a unique set of digits assigned to
each networking device. With this filtering enabled,
the client device must be entered into the
Access Point or Router list of allowed MAC addresses before it is
able to connect. This prevents unknown
people from entering your access point unless allowed.
4. Change the default password needed to access a
wireless device. This is the password
that is prompted for each time you log into your access
point or router. There is a default password
set by the factory, on the devices, but should always be
changed. A hacker knows these default
settings and can use them to gain access to your device
and change your settings. This should be
one of the first things you change when setting up your
Be sure to use a combination of MAC filtering and
either WEP or WPA encryption. Although none of
types can stop the most talented Wireless Hacker, using
a combination of encryption methods will make your
Wireless Network as secure as possible.
For point to point, and point to multi-point wireless
connection, use a frequency other then 2.4GHz.
Such frequencies are
4.9GHz for public safety, 5.8GHz, or 900MHz.
These frequencies are much less common, and will less
likely be used by p
perpetrators to gain access to your wireless LAN.
Connector is most often used by the Linksys and
Cisco family of wireless products. Here is a
quick list of the products that have a RPTNC-Female
connector on the unit:
WAP11, WAP54G, BEFW11S4, WRT54G, AIRONET-350
there are other units out there that use the RPTNC
connector, these are by far the most popular. If you
are unsure about which connector your product has,
please contact us for more information.
Connector is most often used by the D-Link family
of wireless products, and also a few of the Linksys,
ZyXel, and Netgear products. Here is a
quick list of the products that have a RPSMA-Female
connector on the unit:
LINKSYS/CISCO: WMP11, WMP54G, WET11,
D-LINK: DWL-900AP+, DWL-2000AP+, DWL-2100AP+,
ZyXel: ZyAir B-1000, B-2000, B-3000, B-4000
Netgear: ME103, WG302
If you are unsure about which connector your product
us for more information.
regards to using wireless in your home or office, all
you need is a broadband connection, like high speed
cable, DSL, or a T1 or T3 line. When your using a
wireless network to connect to the internet, the
wireless part only concerns your LAN. When you are on
the road, and you connect to a wireless hotspot, if it
is a public hotspot then you don't need a subscription.
If it is a private hotspot, like a restaurant or cafe,
they may require you pay a certain fee for using their
If you are
in a location where there is no high speed internet
service, you may want to see if there are any Wireless
Internet Service Providers (WISP) in your area. There
most likely is and if there is not, maybe you should
consider becoming a WISP and offering high speed
wireless internet to your neighbors. Please contact us
to become a Wireless Internet Service Provider.
Any 2.4GHz antenna is
able to connect to a 2.4GHz D-Link or Linksys, or any
other device with a removable antenna that operates at
the 2.4GHz range. Although the wireless devices have
different connectors on them, we can adjust to the
connectors by giving you the correct cable or pigtail to
go from the antenna to the wireless device of your
choice. Depending on the gain of the antenna, depends
on how far you can run an antenna cable.
In order to share your
internet connection with friends and neighbors, you will
first have to be connected to a high speed broadband
internet connection. After you have determined that,
you will need to determine how far away your neighbors
are and if they are in Line of Site to you house or
not. We recommend attaching an omni directional antenna
on the roof of your location and then attaching between
a 8dBi and 14dBi antenna on your neighbors roof.
Depending on distance and obstructions, depends on the
type of antenna needed. If there is
no line of site, between you and your neighbor, please
contact us for recommendations.
Each wireless device has a
certain power output. Most of the wireless access
points have a power output of about 100mw. Client
devices on the other hand usually have a power output of
about 80 to 100mw. Depending on the power output of
your device, and depending on the gain of your antenna,
and the type of cable being used, is how you determine
the length of coax cable you should be running between
your antenna and your wireless device.
We use two types of cable,
LMR-195, and LMR-400. LMR-400 is usually meant for
outdoor cable runs and has a lower db loss per foot.
LMR-195 is meant for indoor use and has a higher db
foot. The longer the coax cable you use, the lower the
gain or strength your antenna will be.
No. Although the Linksys
access points and routers have two antenna ports on
them, this does not mean that they both have to be
utilized. It is a added benefit of the Linksys router
that it has two antenna ports. On the management
setting, you can select whether you want to use the
left, right or diversity antenna.
Many people think that
since the device has two antenna ports, that one is
transmitting a signal and the other antenna port is
receiving a signal, this is not true. Both antenna
ports are transmitting and receiving. When using the AP
as a bridge, if you only have one, high gain antenna
connected to the Linksys AP or Router, then go
to the management settings, and select which antenna
port you want to use.
How do I setup a
building to building link between 2 locations?
If you are trying to
connect 2 locations wirelessly, all you will need is two
high gain antennas, 2 wireless Access Points, and 2 sets
of extended coax cable. You will also need lightning
arrestors if the antennas are to be mounted on the
roof. This type of setup is known as a bridge kit, and
can connect two locations up to 50 miles apart depending
on the device used. For more information, please visit
our bridge-kit page or
When looking at the unit from the front, the right
antenna is on the right side, and the left antenna is on
the left side.
bridge is more then 100 feet in distance, then you
should have a high gain antenna on each side. Upgrading
the antenna on one side only will not help the wireless
connection you are trying to achieve. In order to have
strong signal strength between the bridge, a high gain
antenna is recommend for each side. Check out our
Wireless Bridge Kits
here. Using a high gain antenna, will also
eliminate wasted WiFi coverage in areas where you do not
need it. Such areas can be used by perpetrators to
try and gain Internet Access off of your network.
Directional antennas will concentrate the wireless
signal to a specified area that you choose.
How can I
place the Access Point near the antenna if there is no
antenna is on the roof, and your access point is located
where you would need 100 feet of antenna cable to
connect to it, then you need a Power over Ethernet
adapter, or POE. Running 100 feet of antenna cable will
be expensive and have a lot of db loss, which will
decrease antenna performance.
adapter will allow you to place the access point closer
to the antenna, and allow for a shorter run of antenna
cable. This usually results in mounting the access
point in the ceiling or the attic where there is
no power. The POE adapter will power the access point
through the Ethernet cable, and eliminate the need for
an extension cord to the attic. Typical Ethernet cable
can be run up to about 300 feet, without loosing signal.
adapter used has to be made by the same manufacturer as
the access point you are using. So if you are using a
Linksys AP, then you will need a Linksys POE. For more
Do I absolutely need
Line-of-Sight between my two locations?
If you are connecting two
locations wirelessly, then we recommend you try to have
Line-of-Site. This usually means having to mount the
antennas on the outside of your location, preferably on
the roof. All of our Bridge kits now come with mounting
hardware so it is much easier to get the antennas
If you cannot get LOS
between the locations, then you should go with a
kit. These antennas are more expensive, because they
have a multi-polarized radiation pattern that allows
them to send a signal through obstructions like trees.
GNS Wireless also carries a number of 900MHz point to
point links, or a 5GHz point to point link.
Depending on what type of obstruction is blocking your
LOS, will depend on which is the best solution for your
application. Contact us for more details.
Is having a wireless
connection between two buildings secure?
Yes, it is possible, with
the correct security measures in place to establish a
secure wireless network between two or more points.
When connecting two locations, point to point, some of
the security measures you want to consider using is to
hide the SSID of your network, use a frequency other
then 2.4GHz, (5GHz, 900MHz, 4.9Ghz), use WPA with MAC
filtering, or higher encryption levels such as AES if
available. Using directional antennas, which come
in all of our bridge packages also, reduce the threat of
transmitting WiFi into areas where perpetrators will
have the ability to gain access. Please refer to
the hardware manual for exact security solutions
available for the Access Point you wish to use.
Each manufacturer will offer different levels of
security, depending on how secure you wish your link to
How do I upgrade my WAP54G to
the most recent firmware?
If your WAP54G does not
have Repeater Mode, or AP Client Mode, then you need to
upgrade your WAP54G to the most recent firmware
available from Linksys. Follow the following
Linksys.com, and download the latest firmware
downloading the firmware to your computer, extract the
files and then log into your WAP54G. Under the
HELP tab, you will find the link for firmware upgrade.
Browse for the file you just downloaded, and the WAP54G
will be updated. For more information, please
How do I setup my WAP54G into
Please visit the Linksys
website for more information on setting up your WAP54G
into Wireless Repeater.
Click Here to go directly to the page where the
repeater function is expained.
What are the different type of
||WEP: (wired equivalent
privacy) is 802.11's optional encryption
standard implemented in the
MAC Layer that most radio network interface
card (NIC) and access point vendors support.
WEP specifies a shared secret 40 ,64 or 128-bit
key to encrypt and decrypt the data. Each
radio NIC and access point, therefore, must be
manually configured with the same key.
This type of encryption is easily breakable and
is only recommended for those who wish to keep
users looking only for free Internet Access.
Protected Access) WPA uses a
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) for
increases security. TKIP replaces WEP with
a new encryption algorithm that is stronger than
the WEP algorithm but that uses the calculation
facilities present on existing wireless devices
to perform encryption operations. WPA was
later rolled out to provide significantly
stronger wireless data encryption than WEP. But,
in order to use WPA, all of the devices
communicating on the network need to be
configured for WPA. If any of the devices in the
chain of communication are configured for WEP,
the WPA devices will typically fall back to the
lesser encryption so that all of the devices can
||MAC Filtering: When
MAC address filtering is enabled, the access
point or router performs an additional check on
a different parameter other then a network key
like the WEP, or WPA explained above. To
set up MAC address filtering, you or the
WLAN administrator must configure a list of
clients that will be allowed to join the
network. Once those clients MAC
addresses are entered into the Access Point or
router, only those devices will be permitted to
log onto the network. MAC filtering is a
great additional source of security when
combined with WEP and WPA encryption.
Encryption Standard. The AES algorithm
uses one of three cipher key strengths: a 128-,
192-, or 256-bit encryption key (password). Each
encryption key size causes the algorithm to
behave slightly differently, so the increasing
key sizes not only offer a larger number of bits
with which you can scramble the data, but also
increase the complexity of the cipher algorithm.
When creating a pass phrase for any type of
encryption, it is good practice to always use a
mix of uppercase, lowercase and numbers
together. AES encryption is dependent on
vender driver support.
||When connecting two or more
locations, it is also good practice to use
directional antennas, (included in all GNS
packages), which will not distribute a wireless
signal to the surrounding area, instead only
sending a wireless signal to the designated area
directed by the antenna. For greater
security, do not use a 2.4GHz system, as this is
what a typical rogue WiFi user has built in a
standard laptop. We recommend using 5GHz,
900MHz, or 4.9GHz for the most secure connection
How do I setup my WAP54G into
Wireless Bridge Mode?
Please refer to
Linksys.com for details
on setting up your Wireless Access Point into
Wireless Bridge Mode. This wireless bridge
mode will communicate two WAP54G access points
together in a point to point fashion. If
you still have questions, please feel free to
contact us anytime. We are here
What is RTS Threshold
and when should it be used?
This setting determines the packet size at which the
device issues a request to send (RTS) before sending the
packet. A low RTS Threshold setting can be useful in
areas where many client devices are associating with the
access point or in areas where the clients are far apart
and can detect only the access point and not each other.
What can I do if
I am having wireless connection problems?
drop or fluctuation are common causes of RF
If your wireless connection is only dropping during
large file transfers or when a large number of wireless
clients are connecting, change the preamble on
all wireless devices to short.
- Change the channel on your access point or
wireless router. Use only channels 1, 6 or 11 for
- Change the location of your wireless products.
Subtle changes (2-3 feet) can make a big difference.
Do not put the access point or wireless router in a
cabinet or enclosure.
- 2.4GHz phones, X-10, and Bluetooth devices will
interfere with your wireless network. Change the
location of the base for your phone, or downgrade to
900MHz phones, or upgrade to 5.8GHz phones.
- The wireless signal will degrade (or die
completely) when going through brick (fireplace),
metal (file cabinet), steel, lead, mirrors, water
(fish tank), large appliances, glass, etc.
What is the transmit
power of the DWL-2100?
15dbm (about 32mW)
Why is Low Latency
important for a Point to Point Wireless backhaul?
is required when VoIP or Video is being streamed across
the wireless link. For a low latency connection,
total packet delivery time needs to be 100ms or less.
For voice applications, low jitter is also important.
Latency is the time it takes for packets to be
transmitted between the two radios.
Jitter is the
variation in latency. It is the difference between
the fastest and slowest packets being transmitted on
your wireless backhaul. Low jitter is the most
important feature when transmitting voice or VoIP across
the wireless backhaul.
How do I reset the
Access Points included in the GNS-1150?
Remove the 4
screws on the back of the access point. Slowly,
and carefully remove the cover, and expose the radio
board as shown below. You will notice 2 reset
buttons. Hold down RESET BUTTON #1, for about 10
seconds, or until the light flashes. Next, hold
down RESET BUTTON #2, as shown, for about 10 seconds, or
until the light flashes. Power down the radio, and
then power back up. Allow for about 45 seconds for
the radio to boot up. You should now be able to
log into the default IP address of 192.168.2.66.